A neoplastic disease or simply a neoplasia refers to a group of cells that proliferate abnormally without the bodys control. The growth in most cases may persist even after withdrawal of that stimulus that brought the anomalous and uncoordinated proliferation. Additionally, research has shown that the augmentation or growth of these cells is not at par with the proliferation of normal body cells; hence the end result is usually a lump of irregular or abnormal cells.
Types of Neoplastic Diseases
Neoplastic diseases can be categorized into two major groups: a) Benign Neoplastic Tumors-This category of tumors cannot metastasize or in simple terms they cant spread from their point of origin to the rest of the body. As a result, quite a number of them are harmless even though a few might be considered as health hazards. For example, thyroid adenomas might pose a greater risk to the normal functioning of the thyroid glands if not removed surgically. This might affect the production of thyroxine hormone hence affecting the normal functioning of the body.
Benign tumors are classiﬁed based on the type of the parent tissue. To name such tumors, one has ﬁrst to identify the tissue of origin followed by a sufﬁx -oma. For example, melanoma and lymphoma refer to benign tumors of the skins melanocytes and bodys lymphatic cells. Signs and symptoms Due to the difference in the type of benign tumors, signs and symptoms may vary. Some benign tumors may be asymptomatic in nature while others may exhibit signs and symptoms. Some of these indicators include: Pain or Tissue dysfunction or Hormonal imbalances causing certain syndromes of Obstruction, for example of blood or lymph or Anemia due to blockage of blood vessels or Emaciation as a result of blockage of the gastrointestinal tract
A few benign tumors can be removed surgically by well trained surgeons although quite a number dont need any kind of remedy.
Malignant Neoplastic Tumors
Unlike benign tumors, malignant neoplastic diseases, commonly referred to as cancer, metastasize. This means that they can spread from their point of origin to other regions of the body either through the lymphatic system or blood system. Apart from cancer cells dividing and growing rapidly, they also invade neighboring tissue cells. This is also another distinguishing characteristic between malignant and benign tumors. Causes Cancer, one of the leading diseases in the world in terms of mortality rates, may be caused by several factors including:
Smoking-Exposure to certain radiations
-viral infections e.g. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)
-Lifestyle diseases like obesity-some genes
-Chemicals e.g. excessive alcohol Symptoms
-Ulceration of the GIT
-Bleeding in the rectum
-Blockage of organs e.g. lung cancer can cause blockage of the air ways
-Fever Treatment Cancer so far has no deﬁnite treatment. Most therapeutic methods available cannot completely eradicate the cancerous cells in the body but reduce them to some certain level. The effectiveness of the treatment will depend on the stage at which the cancer will be detected and prevented.
There are several methods employed:
In summary, neoplastic diseases can be classiﬁed into benign and malignant tumors. Whereas malignant tumors can spread to neighboring tissue cells as well as distant cells, benign cells only proliferate within their parent organ.